GST NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE Course Code GST Course Title Nigerian Peoples and Culture Course Developer/ Writer Dr. Cyrille D. NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE 30 MAIN CONTENT 31 Major Ethnic Groups from HUMANITIES GST at Bowen Interested in gst pdf. GST Nigerian People_2 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Nigerian peoples and culture manual.

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GST GENERAL AFRICAN STUDIES (KEY POINTS WITH QUESTIONS). COURSE OUTLINE. ➢ Traditional Medicine in Africa. Dr. Samuel Adejoh. ➢ Culture. GST NIGERIA PEOPLE AND CULTURE How easy reading concept can improve to be an effective person? GST NIGERIA PEOPLE AND CULTURE. GST Peace and Conflict Resolution. Lecture Note: Perspectives on peace and causes of conflicts. Lecturers: Mr Ademowo. Perspectives of Peace.

Subscribe to view the full document. I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero. Bowen University. However, the first three ethic groups are the main concern of this study unit. By the year , the Hausa population was estimated at about twenty million.

They are also one of the largest linguistic groups in the whole of Africa. The Bayajida Version Most scholars agree that the Bayajida story is the most authentic oral tradition in Hausaland that attempts to explain the origin of the Hausa states.

He is also believed to have come from Baghdad to Kanem-Bornu and thence to Hausa land in present Nigeria. History tells us that Bayajida married the daughter of the Mai of Bornu by whom he had a son at Biran. After a while, Bayajida left Biran to Daura.

While in Daura, he helped to kill a snake, which had for a long time prevented the people from taking water from a well. According to the legend, the queen of Daura was very impressed and decided to marry him.

They were asked by the High God to take whatever they wanted along with them to the world. Land made him powerful and wealthy as he had to sell portions of it to his elder brothers who then became his subjects. Ere was succeeded by Orire. While others chose wealth. He and his brothers. He was succeeded by Ere who is credited with forming the guild system and laying solid foundation for the kingdom.

On arrival. The last Ogiso was Owodo. History tells us that Owodo was the one that clashed with the nobles and eventually became a victim of intrigues of his wives. But on his arrival to Benin Kingdom. But more research is still needed to ascertain the veracity of this version.

Oranmiyan found the Bini people ungovernable. A recent version of this episode by some Bini elites maintains that Oranmiyan. With the end of Ogiso dynasty.

There is no doubt that to them. Before Oranmiyan got back to Ife. Eweka I. The request was granted and Oranmiyan. During the crisis. He is credited with establishing the present Bini dynasty. The overall position of the Bini elites is that although Oranmiyan came from Ile-Ife. He had many children who were sent to villages as Enogies. Oranmiyan was the son of Ekaladeran who had earlier been banished from Benin and who subsequently settled at Ile-Ife and eventually became the ruler.

Eweka I had a long and glorious reign. According to them. This stalemate forced the elders to send a delegation to the Ooni of Ife requesting him to send somebody to Benin to rule over them.

This situation led to a serious political crisis in the Bini Kingdom. The woman became pregnant and eventually gave birth to a child who later became Eweka I. Benin went through a period of interregnum during which the elders established a form of republican government headed by Evian who eventually attempted to usurp the throne by nominating his son Ogiamen to succeed him.

Eweka I thus became the first Oba of Benin and his dynasty still reigns in Benin till today. When you enter into it. This is because from the ancient times.

To Hodgkin. The guilds were professional groups of the common people. The nobility was organized into three [03] groups of title holders: At that time. There were a number of them such as those of the carvers. The Bini society was classified into two distinct classes: These guilds. He was in fact regarded as a divine person who. This is what Hodgkin who visited Benin in declared: He was the head of the kingdom and succession to the throne was by primogeniture.

They also share a common political system based on decentralization of power and delegation of authority exercised by the holders of the staff of authority. When he arrived at Aguleri. Igboland is the original homeland. There are so many versions and it is very difficult to say which is the most acceptable.

Despite some cultural diversity among them. How many sub-cultures exist in Igbo society? Origins of the Igbo The origin of the Igbo people is as controversial as that of the Yoruba and the Bini.

According to Nri version. Onwuejeogwu regards the Nri version as the only authentic version of origin in existence in the oral tradition of the Igbo. Unlike the Yoruba and Bini. Some Igbo scholars consider themselves as off-shoots of the lost tribes of the Hebrews who migrated southward.

There were no equivalents of Oba. This is mainly because Igbo society had always been fragmentary or acephalous.

As their population increased. This is why it is very difficult to reconcile all these various versions. This assumption is based on the so-called similarities between the cultures of the Igbo and the ancient Hebrew. You should remember that the Igbo society has always been known as acephalous.

In traditional Igbo for instance. Hardworking and wealthy individuals were respected and given important responsibilities in the society as well.

As a democratic society. Bini and Igbo to what we witness today. The elders formed the core of village administration. The village-centered administration implied that every linkage for instance. More so. I discussed and analyzed the first three major ethnic groups of the Southern Nigeria: It should be clear to you now that there is a kind of cultural shift from what happened to the traditional Yoruba. I introduced you to the Southern Nigerian peoples and their cultures in pre-colonial times.

In ancient times. They were highly respected accordingly. What do you understand by a segmentary or acephalous society? The Igbo traditional society has been described as direct democracy. All the male adult members usually met in this assembly to perform legislative functions.

All the decisions taken during those meetings were absolute and final. The youth. You should remember that each age-set had its own special rights. Amala Oha was therefore a form of general assembly in traditional Igbo society. Understand their traditional socio-political organizations. History of the Yorubas. Understand their traditional culture or way of life. D and E.

In Obaro Ikime. Discuss any similarity and dissimilarity among them. O Erhagbe. Groundwork of Nigerian History.

Know the similarities and dissimilarities among them etc. A Short History of Benin. Bini and Igbo peoples and cultures? What do you know about the traditional Yoruba. Nigerian Peoples and Cultures 2nd Edition. Nigerian Perspective. University of Benin. Oxford University Press.

Ibadan University Press. These are: In Unit 1. Know who are: This present unit focuses on the last three 03 major ethnic groups of Southern Nigeria. According to the tradition. According to the Itsekiri tradition.

When his father. On his arrival. He alone presided over a council known as Ojoye which was made up of seven nobles or title holders. Oba Olua. History tells us that Iginuwa was the son and heir apparent of Oba Olua of Benin in about Ode Itsekiri is the capital. Other settlements such as the Forcados. Ijaw and a good number of other elements. The Olu combined in himself spiritual and temporal powers.

You should remember that unlike the Yoruba. Iginuwa met with some Ijaws who took him along with his followers by canoe to an Island where they finally settled. This was according to him. Iginuwa at a time wrongly advised his father on a particular issue. The advice was so disastrous that Iginuwa became very unpopular to the extent that his people vowed never to let him succeed his father.

The socio-political organization of the Itsekiri people was very close to that of Benin Kingdom. Iginuwa was then sent with some chiefs and servants to an area by the sea to establish a kingdom of his own. The Palace and titles for instance were modeled after that of Benin Kingdom. But in the Itsekiri case. Bini and Igbo peoples. Escravos and Benin Rivers surround the capital. To most of the Itsekiri. Aghara and Ogo. To them. Aghara and Ogo Version According to Ughelli.

The Ovie for instance. Socio-politically speaking. Olomu and many others. Oogun and Olomu Version To Uwherun. This may be the reason why the Urhobo people. Just like the Itsekiri. I introduced you to the Part II of the peoples of southern Nigeria and their culture in pre-colonial times. I discussed and analyzed the three last major ethnic groups of the Southern Nigeria.

The Itsekiri. Ijaw people were traders especially fishermen. That is. You should also remember that although the Itsekiri. The traditional major Ijaw states were Bonny. That is to say there is no clear-cut demarcation on the history of the origin of the Ijaw from that of the Itsekiri and Urhobo. It should be clear to you by now that the Itsekiri.

For some scholars. Opobo and Brass-Nembe. It is also obvious that there is a kind of sociocultural shift from what happened to the traditional Itsekiri.

Groundwork of Nigeria History. Urhobo and Ijaw are all from the Niger Delta area. Urhobo and Ijaw. Nigerian People and Cultures. Although the Itsekiri. It focuses on the first three major ethnic groups found in the Northern Nigeria namely: Bornu 3. After a while. Bawo had six 06 children who.

He is also believed to have come from Baghdad to Kanem-Bornu and thence to Hausa land in present Nigeria. History tells us that Bayajida married the daughter of the Mai of Bornu by whom he had a son at Biran. These are the Hausa. Bayajida left Biran to Daura.

GST 201 Nigerian People_2

The Bayajida Version Most scholars agree that the Bayajida story is the most authentic oral tradition in Hausaland that attempts to explain the origin of the Hausa states. They later had a son named Bawo.

Other books: HEROLD 2013 PDF

They are also one of the largest linguistic groups in the whole of Africa. While in Daura. By the year Dhiyazan Version They are also known to have been exaggerated in the region North East of the Lake Chad. At the district level.

The Islamization of Hausaland also influenced its judicial system. But all these versions are not certain. Sarkin Kasar. This happened long before the Zaghawa who later invaded the land. Yari Sarki and Sarki Yau. The Sharia law started taking shape. Islam was adopted and this gave birth to many new political institutions such as the offices of the Galadima. The Saif b. He was also the chief executive and judge of the State. He always works with a retinue of officials in a well-organized court.

You should also know that between 14th and 15th centuries. The Army In the traditional Kanem-Bornu. Yazan is also credited to have established the now famous Saifawa dynasty. The army was very professional. This happened between 9th and 10th centuries A. It was divided strategically into two divisions: By his position. His mother i. She was to assist the King in the day-to-day administration of Kanem.

Saif b. You should remember that the Saifawa dynasty was one of the longest ruling dynasties in the pre-colonial West African Sub-region. The Titled Nobility He played a major role in the Kanem political structure. The Idah Version The Nupe-Centred Version Some scholars believe that the early Nupe people originated where they presently occupy. They are known to be important in the administration of the state.

Ganga and Benin in the Southwest.

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Nupeland was located at the cross roads of trade from Borno to Kano axis in the Northeast. Egypt was the origin of the Nupe people.

Gbara was its capital. Yerima and Meshema.

The most important of these were Galadima. Gbara functioned as an entreport connecting Benin and Oyo trade with Nupe. Bornu people. The Nupe state was located on the north bank of the Niger at its confluence with the River Kaduna. They are known to have exercised tremendous influence in the state and were assigned fiefdoms to administer. The Servile Institution The servile was made of slaves and eunuchs. What you should remember is that the pre-colonial Nupe people and state developed in the region of the Niger and Benue valleys of the Nigerian Middle Belt.

It was located on the bank of the Kaduna River and was an important trading center as well. He Trodede is also believed to have had an Igala father and a Nupe mother. There were nobilities such as the Shaba. He was an appointee of the Etsu. The Zitzu was in turn assisted by a council of elders. He operated a two—level administration: But the Etsu Nupe was not always absolute because his power and actions were regulated by a body of traditions and taboos.

The Zitzu In traditional Nupe land. His word was law. The Igala Version History tells us that the Nupe people had at a time paid allegiance and tribute to the Attah of the Igala state. The Zitzu always pays tribute to the Etsu in recognition of his authority. Its main task was to help the king in carrying out his duties as leader. Kpotuh and Maku. The Nobility Besides the Etsu Nupe.

Tsoede might have arrived in the early 16th century from Idah. History tells us that the Etsu Nupe enjoyed a divine status and people worshipped and respected him. I discussed and analyzed the three first major ethnic groups of Northern Nigeria: Can you find any similarities or dissimilarities between them?

The Hausa. ABD Press. The Sokoto Caliphate. I introduced you to the Part I of the Peoples of Northern Nigeria and their culture in pre-colonial times. A Black Byzantium: The Kingdom of Nupe in Northern Nigeria. What do you know about the traditional Hausa. Therefore at the end of this unit you are expected to know: It will focus only on the last three ethnic groups found in the Northern part of Nigeria namely. He is believed to have come from the Igbo country.

History tells us that he was the one who helped the Igala people to break away from the Jukun rule. Achadu Version Some Igala elites attribute the emergence of their state to one Achadu. Historical evidence exists to show that the territories of the Igala and some Yoruba speaking peoples had been contiguous.

He married the Attah and later became a patron ritual husband and the leader of the kingmakers Igalla-mela. Abutu Eje Version History tells us that Abutu Eje was the first personality to seriously contribute to the development or evolution of the Igala state.

Idah has always been known as the capital state of Igala people. He is also credited to have founded the present Igala dynasty. The traditional Igala political structure was operated on two levels. According to records from the Kano Chronicle.

Wukari was also known as the principal town of the Jukun people. The Jukun State was large. They are believed to have occupied the area between the River Benue and the River Ibi in Gongola state. The Kano Chronicle Version The Kano chronicle version was the most authentic source that could say something convincing about the Jukun history of origin. History tells us that by the end of the seventeenth century.

The Attah was head of the centre. There was the central and the provincial level of administration. The Jukun people operated a theocratic system of government.

This shows that although the origin of the Jukun people was almost unknown. A council of chiefs and other officials assisted him in the local or provincial administration of the kingdom. The Jukun are also known as the Kwararafa.

He was believed to be spiritually appointed and What we know about their origin came from oral traditions of myths and legends and theories of migration. Gwer West. Since he was the symbol of the Jukun existence. He was seconded by the Abo Zike.

There were many ways of regulating his power. Bohannan in his book The Tiv of Central Nigeria classifies the Tiv people as the largest single ethnic group in the middle Benue basin of Northern Nigeria. Public opinion was respected in Jukun pre-colonial administration.

Kinda Achuwo and the Aku Nako. Even as the head of the executive. According to Jukun tradition. He had no absolute power over his people. He functioned as the Prime Minister. These regions are flanked by the Alago and Jukunized group on the North. You should also remember that these nobles were representatives of their lineages as well. Katisina Ala. You should also remember that the Tiv attached much importance to the spirit of brotherhood and mutual relations because of the belief that all of them were from one father and therefore from one lineage.

Swem Version Other traditions argue that earlier settlements of the ethnic group came from Swem down to their present location through Nwange and Ibinda. You should remember that in Tiv traditional system. Tiv society was very much segmented.

Bohannan argues that the socio-political system of the traditional Tiv was very unique. Even today. It started with the individual at the lowest level. It was a classic example of segmentary or largely decentralized system of government in pre-colonial and postcolonial Nigeria ever studied.

It was a hierarchical society. In Tiv society. I introduced you to the Part II of the peoples Northern Nigeria and their culture in pre-colonial times.

Jukun and Tiv? I discussed and analyzed the last three major ethic groups of the Northern Nigeria. The Igala. African civilizations: The Tiv of Central Nigeria.

Topics in West African History. The Igbo and their Neighbours. What do you know about the traditional Igala. UI Press. Understand their traditional socio-political organization Know the similarities and dissimilarities among them. Kwararafa and Tiv have been the main focus. It will focus mainly on the different stages Nigeria as a country passed through especially under the British colonial masters.

Ovonramwen of Benin and Attahiru of Sokoto. Nana of Itsekiri. In This happened through dubious treaties that were signed with some Nigerian potentates.

It was under the umbrella of such happenings that the British first formally annexed Nigerian territory. According to Hodgkin: The trade got to maturity in the 16th century. Despite the resistance of some brave and courageous Nigerians such as Jaja of Opobo. But in the early decade of the 19th century.

You should know that it is tautological to say that the trade was very damaging to Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. For close to three centuries. Tamuno observes that the primary aim of the amalgamation was purely economic. But by That was why. In January British government amalgamated Lagos colony and protectorate with the protectorate of Southern Nigeria to form the new colony and protectorate of Southern Nigeria.

According to Hatch the amalgamation of Nigeria was carried out with many unanswered questions such as: What would be the effect of uniting the Fulani emirates — with their comparatively static.

The principal reason for this is the same as that of May You should know that since the whole Nigeria was under the responsibility of the British government they did not bother to seek the views of Nigerians in the two territories as to whether or not they supported the amalgamation. The Northern protectorate was not as economically buoyant as the colony and protectorate of Southern Nigeria.

In any case. Nigeria still operated as a federation of two groups of provinces between and It was exploitative and this engendered protests from prominent Nigerians.

How would societies that only a few years earlier had been rival and often hostile states live together under one administration? Should they form a single nation? If so. As stated earlier. The pursuit of economic goals was their catalyst. Was it to build an empire permanently subordinate to Britain. The British were busy looking for cheap raw materials and creating markets for the sale of their finished products.

Later on April 1. This tripartite division of Nigeria remained well into the independence period. Despite the amalgamation of In doing that. The immediate result to such unfortunate situation was the birth of Nigerian nationalism. It was headed by Samuel Akinsanya.

Nigerians became foreigners in their own country! The activities of black diasporas in the New World. The peoples protest against the colonial system in their desire to alter the existing colonial system so that they could benefit from it.

Nnamdi Azikiwe and Chief Obafemi Awolowo later joined the movement in Three major trends characterized the strength of nationalistic spirit: Like in other parts of Africa.

Nigeria became independent on October 1st Garvey and Wilmot Blyden who were exponents of the dignity of the African person. Nnamdi Azikiwe as its secretary. Ernest Ikoli and Dr. C Vaughan. It was headed by Herbert Macaulay as president and Dr. The Nigerian nationalism was welcome both in the country and abroad. O Davies. Ethnicism and tribalism were the most prominent.

On this note. You should also remember that even when Nigeria attained her independence. It is also believed that the constitution marked the end of nationalist struggle for independence. They argue that Nigeria is a conglomerate of various ethnic groups.

There is no doubt that the establishment of these tribal oriented political organizations turned out to be strong centrifugal forces against Nigerian unity. According to Olusanya The need for its revision became necessary. The constitution established a federal system of government for Nigeria.

Bearing the socio-historical evolution of Nigeria in mind. The revision led to the promulgation of the Lyttleton Constitution of that remains the cornerstone of the Nigerian constitution till date.

So it was futile to put such people together. Is Nigeria a vital political unit? This was also the case with the British thirteen America Colonies that later formed the United States of America with their declaration of independence in According to Ikime and Ajayi and Alagoa Nigeria can be seen as a real political unit. We have seen how the dynamics of such evolution passed through different stages mostly engineered by British colonial masters.

They also argue that the common experience of colonial rule download the peoples of Nigeria provided good grounds for building a nation. They argue that there were fruitful inter-group relations between the people of Nigeria before colonial rule. John James A History. Background to Nationalism. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Indiana University Press. An Introduction to Nigerian Government and Politics. The emphasis will be mainly on the knowledge of who the Niger Delta people are.

The Ijaw. You should remember that each of these groupings has its political institutions and autonomy. Fishing is the major occupation for those that live entirely within the mangrove and fresh water areas. The different ethnic groups that constitute Niger Delta Region are generally described as minorities. GST 2. This is especially the case in the Urhobo area. Although most of these ethnic groups belong to the Kwa language family.

History tells us that the Ijaw have over forty village groupings. In the The recent stage of their culture history shows the Urhobo as great traders while the communities of Itsekiri. The Itsekiri constitute the only exception. Geographically speaking. Those located in the immediate hinterland combine fishing with the cultivation of root crops. Many ethnic groups of the Niger Delta Region rely on their dialects and are eager to develop them.

Bonny and Opobo have established themselves as the middlemen of the oil trade. The prominent ones are gods and goddesses of the waters. And they have never nurtured any great ambition to dominate others. It is recorded that in the past. History also tells us that unlike the Edo. Any genuine Niger Delta person considers waters.

You should also remember that in the Niger Delta region. You should also know that witchcraft belief is very pronounced in the Niger Delta region. The clan or village group is a confederation. It is recorded that in the Niger Delta Region. Talk about their socio-political organization.

Also music and dance constitute an immense contribution of the Niger Delta region to the overall heritage of the Nigeria nation. Talk about their origins. History also tells us that cloth weaving in the Aboh area diffused to parts of Isoko and Urhobo areas. Perhaps their ecological limitations did not encourage such artistic orientation.

This is also true of Okupa in Isokoland. It is well known that the late Rex Lawson had derived much of his inspiration from his native Kalabari Ijaw music. It is recorded that most of these dances and music have formed the cultural background of some of the young dancers and musicians of today. Discuss their religious beliefs. The Isoko People.

Some Nigerian Peoples. The Urhobo People.

A History of Niger Delta. First of all. The Yoruba group is located in the Western part of the region stretching across the border of Benin Republic with incursion into Togo as well. The Eastern and It focuses mainly on the knowledge of who the forest people of Nigeria are. Monarchical States [See module 1. He is the link between his people and the ancestors.

In Igboland. In every Igboland. Based on similarities and dissimilarities of culture among the rain forest people. Every lineage is headed by an Okpara. Village Democracy The Igbo people are well known for it. It is the same process at the village level.. Villages are made up of lineages which are regarded as something similar to component states. It is best represented by the Yoruba. He also controls the Ofo that symbolizes justice and authority.

Unit 2]. The eastern part of Igboland to the Cameroonian border is occupied by the Yakur. When there are serious disputes or matters requiring crucial and careful decisions.

The town is made up of lineages. Anybody that can make meaningful contribution during general meetings is welcome irrespective of sex and age. Bekwara and others. The Igbo people. Contrary to the Igbo.

The first tendency is what we may call Village democracies and the second is the monarchical states. The Edoid culture group which includes Bini. Adugbo or Olorin itun. Wards are also made up of compounds which are headed by the eldest man called Baale. There was rather a kind of hierarchy of powers. Although God is supremely the same. His duty is to conduct the administration of the town in consultation with the various lineage chiefs.

God is called Olodumare or Olorun. Communities such as Ife. The leader of the founder lineage assumes the headship of the town. The Esan call him Osenebua and the Etsako call him Oghena. They also share a general belief in the existence of a Supreme God. There is also an appreciable level of textile work in the whole of the rain forest region. The ward chief is called Ijoye. In the Rain Forest of Nigeria. He is also called Oba when crowned king. At the local level. Ibibioland and her neighbours constitute the reservoir of great masks most of which are objects of deep religious meaning and symbolism.

The leadership in every lineage in Yorubaland is hereditary. The Baale is the head of the town.

Abiriba and Oyo have iron smelting as their major business. In the traditional Yoruba politics. Among the Benin he is called Osanobua. They are unbeatable in the science of metallurgy especially iron smelting and black smithing. The people of the Rain Forest are more concerned with their deities who are closer to them than God Himself.

The most powerful of these lesser deities are Orisa in Yorubaland.

General African Studies

God has unlimited powers and He is also benevolent and punitive. It is important to note that the general philosophy behind the religious spirit of the Rain Forest people is the search for good health. Yemoo and Oluorogbo are some few powerful deities in Yorubaland. We have focused mainly on their socio-political organization.

This is one of the reasons why He hardly gets involved directly in the affairs of men. His residence is somewhere in space in the direction of the sky. Almost all the various cultures of the Rain Forest region of Nigeria consider the Supreme God as the Creator of the whole universe. In their own understanding. Ana or Ani are some powerful Igbo deities. There are lesser deities in Yorubaland in than Igboland but all of them are powerful. Alusi in Igbo and Ebo in Edoland. Unlike in the Niger Delta region.

The attachment to deities is so powerful that in the Ife area. GST 6. The Social Anthropology of Africa. The Sociology of the Yoruba. Plateau and Taraba. The Middle Belt sometimes called Kasashen Bauchi is also part of this region. The four major states of Adamawa. To begin with. It covers the Idoma. It shares the border with It focuses mainly on the knowledge of who the Guinea Savanna people are their socio-political organization.

Some prominent groups such as the Ebira. Such groups are the Mumuye. But these few cases cannot be compared with the majority of the groups within the region that do not have monarchical structures. The Guinea Savanna people have always been known for their petty chiefdoms or village or lineage-based democracy.

Apart from some large groups such as the Tiv. History shows that before the rise of emirates along with their jihads in the early nineteenth century and the advent of warrant chiefs. Only few ethnic groups such as the Igala. You should remember that most of these groups claim origin of Hausa or Jukun ancestors.

It is difficult to find groups with more than a thousand souls. There is even a general tendency to believe that about seventy per cent of the peoples and cultures of Nigeria are found in the Guinea Savanna region.

GST 201 - Social Organization

They also cultivate cassava but not in abundance. Sheko or Soko. He is differently called according to the ethnic groups. He is known as Agwatana among the Busa. Yam is the most cultivated. The Nupe call him Soko. Even the hilly terrains of the Adamawa.

In the Guinea Savanna region there is land for everybody and fertility of the land there is exceptional. In the Guinea Savanna region land belongs to the community or lineage and not to individuals.

Among the other ethnic groups of the region. God is called Ashili or Bakashili. But you should remember that although the belief in a Supreme God is general in that region. Among the Kurama. He is known as Shido or Chido among the Jukun.The result is that the educated Nigerian is thrown into the morass of moral and intellectual confusion. They adhered to and believed in an unwritten code of conduct guaranteed by the ancestors and the gods or goddesses. It is recorded that most of these dances and music have formed the cultural background of some of the young dancers and musicians of today.

There is even a general tendency to believe that about seventy per cent of the peoples and cultures of Nigeria are found in the Guinea Savanna region.

Within the Savannah. Bohannan argues that the socio-political system of the traditional Tiv was very unique. Temne a. Traditional healer makes use of all the consanguine family?

Their children a.